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Hybrid Bond Recent Studies

The following is the summary of the report presented at the AADR General Session in Dallas in April 2008.

INFLUENCE OF ADHESION ON WEAR-RESISTANCE OF RESIN - COATING MATERIALS AGAINST TOOTHBRUSH-ABRASION

T. YAMAMOTO1, T. NIKAIDO2 and J. TAGAMI2, et al.

1Sun Medical Co.,Ltd., Shiga, Japan
2Tokyo Medical and Dental University

Influence of adhesion on wear-resistance of resin-coating materials against toothbrush-abrasion. 【PDF:577KB】pdf

This study examined relationship between tensile bond strength and wear- resistance of Hybrid Bond and SB Coat (Sun Medical, available in Japan only).

Methods:
The specimens were prepared by combining with composite on the surface and TBS was measured after immersion in 37 °C water for 24-hr (n=6). Specimens for both film-thickness and TA-test were prepared by removing non-polymerized monomer-layer on the surface. The test of 1000-stroke was carried out under normal load of 1N both with diluted toothpaste. In order to stain the expose dentin, after every 100-stroke the samples were etched with aqueous solution(pH1) of 10% citric acid and 10% FeCl3 for 10-second followed by immersing in aqueous 5% tannic acid (pH3.1) for 10 min. The wear resistance (WR) was estimated from area of the exposed dentin by graphic image analysis.

Results:
WR of Hybrid Bond demonstrated more than 98% until 1000-stroke when the film-thickness had over 10μm. This result indicated that the WR depended on both the film-thickness and tensile bond strength (TBS).

  Hybrid Bond SB Coat
Film thickness/μm 17.2±4.1 5.8±2.7 13.8±4.6 2.3±1.7
TBS/MPa 13.3±3.2 13.2±3.4 4.1±1.9 2.2±1.5
WR/% 100-stroke 100 85±10 49±28 5±2
300-stroke 100 46±22 38±13 2±2
1000-stroke 99±1 2±2 23±15 2±2

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The following is the summary of the report presented at the AADR General Session in Dallas in April 2008.

EVALUATION OF PUSH-OUT BOND STRENGTH AT DIFFERENT ROOT DENTIN LEVELS

H. UEKI1, T. KAWAI2, et al.

1Sun Medical Co., Ltd., Japan,
2Aichi-Gakuin University School of Dentistry, Nagoya, Japan

Evaluation of push-out bond strength at different root dentin levels【PDF:581KB】pdf

The purpose of this study was to evaluate push-out bond strengths of two build-up restoration materials at different root dentin levels.

Materials used:
Group1: Brush&Bond*/Absolute-Dentin (Parkell)
Group2: Bond-1/Build-It (Pentron)
*Brush&Bond = Hybrid Bond

Methods:
After enlargement of up to 2mm diameter of root canal, two different adhesive system were applied to each root canal in accordance with manufactures’ instructions. After storage in water at 37°C for 24hr, all specimens were sliced to 0.7mm-thick at 3-levels (coronal, middle, apical segment) and the push-out bond strength of each section (coronal, middle) was measured.

Results:
Push-out bond strengths of Group 1 were significantly higher than those of Group 2 at different root dentin levels. Difference in root location did not affect bond strength of two materials to radicular dentin.

  Push-out bond strengths (MPa)
Group Coronal Middle
Hybrid Bond/Absolute-Dentin 17.8±5.1 22.8±3.1
Bond-1/Build-It 1.3±0.6 3.8±1.8b

Conclusion:
It was suggested that adhesive system of Group1 had high bond strength because this system was bondable to both radicular dentin and fiber-post. It was considered that the difference in root location did not affect bond strength because Hybrid Bond had high photo-sensitivity and characteristics of self-cure. From these results, Group1 could be useful for build-up restoration.

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The following article has been published concerning Hybrid Bond.

DOES APPLICATION OF PHASE-SEPARATED SELF-ETCHING ADHESIVES AFFECT BOND STRENGTH?

FINGER W., SHAO B., HOFFMANN M., KANEHIRA M., ENDO T., KOMATSU M.
The Journal of Adhesive Dentistry Vol.9: 169-173, 2007

Hybrid Bond (Sun Medical), G-Bond (GC), and iBond (Heraeus) were applied on human ground enamel and dentin either 1) immediately, 2) after 2 min, or 3) after 5 min dark storage under ambient conditions. Venus (Heraeus) composite cylinders were produced in a cylindrical mold clamped on the treated surface. SBSs (n=8) were determined after 24 h storage in 37°C water.

Results:
1. The phase-separated stage has no adverse effect on bond strength to enamel or dentin when applied under these conditions.
2. The SBSs of the individual adhesives applied on enamel/dentin are as shown below.

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The following is the summary of the report presented at the IADR General Session in New Orleans in March 2007.

HYBRID BOND AND XENO III IN CERVICAL LESIONS: TWO YEAR RESULTS.

C.-P. ERNST, et al.
Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz

Hybrid Bond and Xeno III in cervical lesions: Two year results. 【PDF:79KB】pdf

This study is the two-year follow-up report of the evaluation of the clinical performance of Hybrid Bond (Sun Medical) and Xeno III (Dentsply/DeTrey).

Methods:
The cavities were randomly assigned to the two adhesives. To obtain comparability, Filtek Supreme was used as the only restorative material in both cases. (Also refer to the articles below, 1/2 yr and 1 yr follow-ups.)

Results:
After two years the results (%) of the Ryge/CDA-evaluation for the two groups Hybrid Bond/Xeno III
were:

  • Marginal Adaptation: Alfa: 92/78, Bravo: 8/12, Charlie: 0/0, Delta: 0/10
  • Anatomic Form: Alfa: 92/82, Bravo: 8/8, Charlie 0/10
  • Secondary Caries: Alfa: 100/100, Bravo: 0/0
  • Marginal Discoloration: Alfa: 80/84, Bravo:20/12, Charlie: 0/0, not evaluable: 0/4
  • Surface: Romeo: 78/69, Sierra: 22/22, Tango: 0/0, Victor: 0/10
  • Color Match: Oscar: 39/47, Alfa: 51/45, Bravo: 10/4, Charlie: 0/0, not evaluable: 0/4
  • Tooth Vitality: Alfa: 98/94, Bravo: 2/6
  • Postoperative Sensitivity: Alfa 1: 100/100, Alfa 2: 0/0, Bravo: 0/0, Charlie: 0/0, Delta: 0/0
  • Integrity of Tooth: Alfa 1: 96/96, Alfa 2: 4/4, Bravo: 0/0, Charlie: 0/0, Delta: 0/0

Conclusion:
After two years, all Hybrid Bond restorations retained and showed clinically acceptable results, while 5 Xeno III restorations were lost in part or in toto.

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The following is the summary of the report presented at the AADR/ADEA Annual Meeting in Orlando in March 2006.

IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF SELF-ETCHING ADHESIVE WITH BUILD-UP COMPOSITE RESIN

K. NAKANO, A. SUZAKI, M. YAMADA, M. HATTORI, H. MASUDA, A. SENDA,T. KAWAI
Aichi-Gakuin University School of Dentistry, Japan

In-vitro evaluation of self-etching adhesive with build-up composite resin【PDF:78KB】pdf

This study is to compare the in vitro bond strength of a self-etching adhesive and a build-up composite resin to dentin with or without various dentin surface treatments.

Materials and Methods:
The exposed canal dentin of extracted human molar roots were pretreated with (1)65% of phosphoric acid (PA), (2)PA followed by 10% of hypochlorite (PA+NaClO), (3)distilled water as control. Brush&Bond (B&B: Parlkell=Hybrid Bond: Sun Medical) was applied to the pretreated root canal dentin surfaces for 20 sec. and air-dried to remove the solvents and photo irradiation for 10 sec. The canal coated with B&B was filled with build-up resin, Absolute-DENTIN (ABD; Parkell) with the completely fiber post and polymerized with and without a visible light irradiation. The specimens were stored in 37°C water for 24 hrs followed by preparation to obtain a bond area of 1mm2. Micro-tensile bond strengths were measured after immersion in water for 24 hrs. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA.

Results:

  MTBS (MPa)
Polymerizatiob type PA PA+NaClO Control
Photo-polymerization 23.5±9.3a 25.7±9.1a 22.9±7.2a
Chemical
polymerization
20.1±6.5a 22.4±7.5a 20.0±6.6a

Conclusion:
It was concluded that a combination of Hybrid Bond and Absolute Dentin are possible for a build-up restoration when dentin was treated with PA or PA+NaClO.

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The following is the summary of the report presented at the AADR/ADEA Annual Meeting in Orlando in March 2006.

MICROTENSILE BOND STRENGTHS OF SELF-ETCHING ADHESIVES WITH DIFFERENT APPLICATION PROCEDURES

D. CAKIR, S. SUZUKI
University Of Alabama, Birmingham, USA

Microtensile bond strength of self-etching adhesives with different application procedures【PDF:99KB】pdf

This study is to investigate the effect of bonding procedures on μTBS of two self-etching adhesives.

Material Used:
Hybrid Bond (Sun Medical)/Brush&Bond (Parkell)
Adper Prompt L-Pop (3M/ESPE)

Methods:
Flattened occlusal dentin of human molars was bonded with Hybrid Bond and Adper Prompt L-Pop. The dentin surfaces were bonded either following the manufacturers‘ instructions; the material and applicator were repetitively used (control group) or with a modified method; the material and applicator were renewed for each application to avoid material contamination by smear layer debris (experimental group). Composite build-up was carried out with Z100 and BisFil Core, then the specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hrs at 37°C.

Results:
The bond strengths of the specimens prepared with the modified application technique were not statistically different from that of the specimens prepared with manufacturers' instructions.

(Mean ± S.D. Unit: MPa)

  Hybrid Bond (n=90) The mean microleakage (n=56)
Control Group 37.6 ± 12.0b 35.7 ± 12.5b
Experimental Group 35.7 ± 13.3b 33.0 ± 12.1b

The values with the same letters within the same low are not significantly different (p>0.05).

Conclusion:
The smear debris did not significantly affect the bond strengths of the materials tested. Thus, the self-contaminants during repetitive application of self-etching systems did not lead a significant decrease in the tensile bond strength.

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The following is the summary of the report presented at the AADR/ADEA Annual Meeting in Orlando in March 2006.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SELF-ETCHING ADHESIVE AND POLYMERIZATION MODE OF RESIN COMPOSITE

T. YAMAMOTO1, M. ARATA1, T. ORI1, N. YAMAMOTO2, S. WAKAMATSU2, T. IKEMI2

1Sun Medical Co., Ltd, Japan,
2Nihon University, School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Japan

Relationship between self-etching adhesive and polymerization mode of resin composite 【PDF:372KB】pdf

This study is to evaluate micro-tensile bond strength (MTBS) of Hybrid Bond (HB) to coronal dentin using photo and chemical resin composite.

Methods:
Hybrid Bond was applied to the exposed dentin surfaces with and without activated brushes for 20 seconds and photo polymerized for 10 seconds. Dual-curable Absolute-DENTIN (Parkell), photo-curable Epic-TMPT (Parkell) or an experimental chemical curable EPT (Sun Medical), was placed on the cured self-etcher and polymerized with or without visible light irradiation. Micro-tensile bond strengths (MTBS) were measured after a 24 hr water immersion.

Results:
MTBS of a combination of HB and both resin composites cured by photo polymerization to dentin demonstrated about 20 MPa although MTBS of a combination of HB with activated brushes and both resin composites cured by chemical polymerization to dentin showed a significantly different from other groups (p<0.05, n=10).

    HB with activated brushes HB without activated brushes
Absolute-DENTIN Photo-cure 24.5 ± 5.3 (100%)a 23.1 ± 5.7 (100%)a
Chemical cure 20.1 ± 4.9 (100%)b 18.3 ± 4.8 (70%)c
Epic-TMPT Photo-cure 33.2 ± 6.1 (100%)a 28.3 ± 4.4 (100%)a
Experiment C-EPT Chemical cure 21.9 ± 5.2 (100%)a 18.7 ± 5.0 (80%)c

Parentheses showed a survival rate of preparation for MTBS test specimen.

Conclusion:
It was concluded that activated brushes of Hybrid Bond were more effective to promote the MTBS of a combination of Hybrid Bond and chemical resin composite to dentin.

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The following is the summary of the report presented at the AADR/ADEA Annual Meeting in Orlando in March 2006.

MICROLEAKAGE OF CROWN PREPARATIONS TREATED WITH BONDING AGENTS

J.C. Chang, et al.
University of Texas-Houston

This study is to investigate the microleakage of crown preparations after bonding agents have been applied to the dentin surfaces.

Methods:
After preparation, Touch&Bond (AQ Bond), Brush&Bond (Hybrid Bond), and Gluma Desensitizer were applied to the surfaces of extracted, non-carious posterior human teeth specimens. Another ten specimens acted as control without any bonding agent on the surfaces. All specimens were immersed in 0.5 basic fuchsin solution for 24 hrs and were embedded in epoxy resin.

The amount of microleakage was graded as follows:

0 = no microleakage; 1 = dye penetrated less than 25% of the cross-sectional area;
2 = dye penetrated 25% to 50% of the cross-sectional area;
3 = dye penetrated 50% to 75% of the cross-sectional area;
4 = dye penetrates more than 75% of the cross-sectional area.

Results:

  The mean microleakage
Control 3.6 ± 0.52
Touch&Bond (AQ Bond) 2.4 ± 0.52
Brush&Bond (Hybrid Bond) 1.4 ± 0.52
Gluma Desensitizer 3.4 ± 0.70

Conclusion:
At p<0.01, Hybrid Bond and AQ Bond produced significantly less microleakage than Gluma Desensitizer and Control. Least microleakage was observed with the Brush&Bond.

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The following is the summary of the report presented at the AADR/ADEA Annual Meeting in Orlando in March 2006.

HYBRID BOND AND XENO III IN CERVICAL LESIONS: ONE YEAR RESULTS.

C.-P. ERNST, et al.
Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz

Hybrid Bond and Xeno III in cervical lesions: One year results.【PDF:65KB】pdf

This study is the follow-up report of the evaluation of the clinical performance of Hybrid Bond (Sun Medical) and Xeno III (Dentsply/DeTrey).

Methods:
The cavities were randomly assigned to the two adhesives. To obtain comparability, Filtek Supreme was used as the only restorative material in both cases. After one year, all of the restorations were available for the follow up investigation. (Also refer to the article #5 below, 1/2 year follow-up)

Results:
The comparison of clinical performances between Hybrid Bond and Xeno III after one year showed the difference while those after 3 months and 6 months were not significantly different. (See the poster for the details.)

Conclusion:
After one year, all Hybrid Bond restorations retained and showed clinically excellent results, while 5 Xeno III restorations were lost in part or in toto.

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The following is the summary of the report presented at the 3rd ConsEuro 2006 in Rome in February 2006.

COMPARISON OF THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF RESIN-BASED ADHESIVES AND FISSURE SEALANTS.

A.Dabanoglu, I. Nyama, R. Hickel, K.-H. Kunzelmann.
Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Munich

Comparison of the Mechanical Properties of Resin-based Adhesives and Fissure Sealants【PDF:991KB】pdf

The purpose of this study is to compare the surface micro-hardness, the elastic modulus and the wear-strength of resin-based adhesives and fissure sealants.

Materials used:
Bonding agents
・Hybrid Bond (Sun Medical)
・Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray)
・Heliobond (Ivoclar Vivadent)

Fissure sealants
・Helioseal F (Ivoclar Vivadent)
・Dyract Seal (Dentsply)
・Delton (Dentsply)

Methods:
The surface micro-hardness and the elasticity modulus of the specimens were measured with a nanoindentation device after their polymerization with a halogen curing unit. The body wear measurement of the specimens at the simulated fissures (300 Äæm widths) were evaluated by ACTA wear machine and measured with 3D Laser Scanner.

Results:

  Hybrid Bond Clearfil SE Heliobond Dyract Seal Deltons FS Helioseal F
Elasticity modulus
(GPa)
6.75±1.3 4.29±0.6 2.23±0.3 2.04±0.3 3.24±0.7 2.05±0.9
Vickers hardness
(GPa)
28.3±7.3 28.9±4.8 11.6±1.8 10.5±2.1 24.9±8.1 11.9±5.2
Mean wear values
(μm)
53.6±19.1 48.5±18.8 59.2±18.1 51.1±18.0 50.2±17.5 51.7±17.2

Conclusion:
Hybrid Bond exhibited the highest modulus of elasticity. Hybrid Bond and Clearfil SE achieve comparable hardness values as another well-established fissure sealant, Delton FS. Based on the data evaluated, the dentin bonding agents should be an alternative for conventional fissure sealants.

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The following is the summary of the report presented at the 83rd General Session & Exhibition of the IADR in Baltimore in March 2005.

RELIABILITY IN BOND STRENGTH OF ALL-IN-ONE ADHESIVE SYSTEMS

T. KIMISHIMA1, Y. NARA1, M. HASEGAWA1, A. SHIROTA1, T. MASEKI1 and I.L. DOGON2

1Nippon Dental University, Japan
2Harvard University, USA

The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability in tensile bond strength of 6 all-in-one adhesive systems.

Materials used:

  • Adper Prompt L-Pop (3M ESPE) – APL
  • Brush & Bond = Hybrid Bond (Sun Medical) – BAB
  • One Up Bond F Plus (Tokuyama) – OBP
  • G-Bond (GC) –GBN
  • Shake One (Shofu) –SIB
  • SSB-200 (Kuraray) – SSB

Methods:
A standardized wedge shaped cavity was prepared in cervical buccal side of extracted human premolar. Dentine bond strength (DBS) test; was performed at the gingival dentine wall (n=12), and enamel bond strength (EBS) test; was performed at the beveled enamel (n=12). The test was performed immediately using an original Portable Adhesion Tester (J. Dent Res. 75, SI #2943, 1996 etc.), after the system was applied to dentine or enamel, and combined with the originally made composite resin (Kuraray) for the tester.

Results:
Mean values (SD) of DBS and EBS in MPa were (n=72); EBS; 22.1(6.0) and DBS; 24.7(5.7), and there was statistical difference between the two substrates (p<0.01). Weibull modulus against EBS was 4.38 and DBS was 4.88, and DBS was statistically higher than EBS (p<0.01). Mean bond strength value (SD) of each material in MPa was (n=24); APL; 27.7(4.9), BAB; 22.2(4.7), OBP; 23.3(6.4), GBN; 20.3(6.0), SIB; 22.5(5.0), SSB; 23.3(6.2).
There was statistical difference between APL and BAB (p<0.01), GBN (p<0.01), SIB (p<0.05). While Weibull modulus were; APL; 6.55, BAB; 5.47, OBP; 4.07, GBN; 3.88, SIB; 5.01, SSB; 3.90. APL was statistically higher than SIB, OBP, SSB and GBN (p<0.01). Also BAB and SIB were higher than OB2, SSB, and GBN (p<0.01).

Conclusion:
All-in-one adhesive systems seemed to have better bonding quality in dentine than enamel. APL and BAB seemed to be more reliable in bond strength to tooth substrates than the other systems.

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The following is the summary of the report presented at the 83rd General Session & Exhibition of the IADR in Baltimore in March 2005.

MICRO-TENSILE BOND STRENGTH OF SELF-ETCHING ADHESIVES TO AIR-ABRADED TOOTH.

M, Arata1, N. Yamamoto2, et al.

1Sun Medical Co., Ltd.
2Nihon University, Japan

Micro-tensile bond strength of self-etching adhesives to air-abraded tooth. 【PDF:320KB】pdf

The purpose of this study is to compare micro-tensile strength of Hybrid Bond (Brush&Bond in the U.S.) and AQ Bond Plus to air-abraded enamel and dentin with or without phosphoric acid treatment.

Methods :
36 extracted human teeth were ground flat to enamel or dentin with #180 Sic paper under irrigation. 16 ground tooth surfaces were air-abraded and a half of these specimens were treated with phosphoric acid for 5-10s before rinsing with water. Hybrid Bond was applied to ground or air-abraded surfaces with or without PA treatment and photo-polymerized for 10s.

Resin composite was placed on the bonding layer and photo-polymerized. The specimens were then stored in 37°C water for 24hrs.

Results:
Micro-tensile bond strength of the self etching adhesives to air-abraded tooth

Evaluated Item / Materials Brush&Bond (Hybrid Bond)
Enamel Dentin
#180 19.1±3.3 42.4±8.1
Air-abrasion 10.9±3.1 36.1±8.8
Air-abrasion + PA 41.3±5.8 49.3±6.1

Conclusion:
Phosphoric acid treatment should be used after air-abrasion when Hybrid Bond is applied on the tooth.

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The following is the summary of the report presented at the 83rd General Session & Exhibition of the IADR in Baltimore in March 2005.

HYBRID BOND AND XENO III IN CERVICAL LESIONS: 6 -MONTH RESULTS.

C.-P. ERNST, et al.
Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz

Hybrid Bond and Xeno III in cervical lesions: 6 month results.【PDF:660KB】pdf

The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical performance of adhesive Class V resin composite restorations used with Hybrid Bond (Sun Medical) and Xeno III (Dentsply/DeTrey).

Methods :
50 patients received at least two comparable Class V restorations (total number: 104). The cavities were randomly assigned to the Hybrid Bond and Xeno III. To obtain comparability, Filtek Supreme was used as the only restorative material. VL-curing was conducted incrementally for 40s. After 1/2 year, 100 % of the restorations were investigated for a first follow up.

Results :
After 6 months the results [%] of the Ryge/CDA-evaluation for the two groups Hybrid Bond /Xeno III were:
Marginal Adaptation: Alfa: 96/93, Bravo: 4/4, Charlie:0/0, Delta: 0/2;
Anatomic Form: Alfa: 91/89, Bravo: 9/7, Charlie 0/4;
Secondary Caries: Alfa: 100/100, Bravo: 0/0;
Marginal Discoloration: Alfa: 89/93, Bravo: 11/7, Charlie: 0/0;
Surface: Romeo: 84/84, Sierra: 13/13, Tango: 0/0, Victor: 2/2;
Color Match: Oscar: 44/60, Alfa: 49/38, Bravo: 7/2, Charlie: 0/0;
Tooth Vitality: Alfa: 100/96, Bravo: 0/4;
Postoperative Sensitivity: Alfa 1: 100/98, Alfa 2: 0/0, Bravo: 0/0, Charlie: 0/2, Delta: 0/0;
Integrity of Tooth: Alfa 1: 96/98, Alfa 2: 4/2, Bravo: 0/0, Charlie: 0/0, Delta: 0/0.

Conclusion:
The results over the first 6 months observation period did not show significant differences (Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney-test) between the both adhesives investigated.

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The following is the summary of the report presented at the International Symposium on Dental Hygiene in Madrid in July 2004.

PREVENTION OF SECONDARY CARIES BY SELF-ETCHING BONDING SYSTEM (HYBRID BOND)

Y.FUKAGAWA1, H.TANAKA2, N.YASUDA1, N.NAKABAYASHI3

1The Dai-ichi Mutual Life Insurance Company, Japan
2SUN MEDICAL CO.,LTD.
3Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan

Prevention of Secondary Caries by Self-Etching Bonding System (Hybrid Bond) 【PDF:297KB】pdf

The study evaluated the influence of a self-etching bonding system, Hybrid Bond, on dentin demineralization using extracted human molars.

Materials used:
Hybrid Bond (Sun Medical)
Metafil CX composite (Sun Medical)

Methods:
Hybrid Bond was applied to exposed flat dentin and soaked in lactic acid for a week to measure the depth of demineralization. The specimens were then immersed in 5% methylene-blue solution for 2 hrs, followed by the film thickness measurement under SEM and TEM, and dye penetration was evaluated by a light microscope.

Results:
Vickers hardness

  Dentin coated with Hybrid Bond Dentin not coated with Hybrid Bond
Before immersion in lactic acid 42.8Hv 57.7Hv
After immersion in lactic acid 40.3Hv 23.8Hv
Decrease in hardness 5.8% 58.8%

Conclusion:
The diffusion of lactic acid could be completely inhibited by the adhesive resin coating, and the dentin surface hardness could be maintained.
Secondary caries caused by diffusion of acids could be prevented by coating with Hybrid Bond.

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The following article has been published recently concerning Hybrid Bond. (Hybrid Bond is referred to as RZ-II in the article.)

THE RESIN-COATING TECHNIQUE. EFFECT OF A SINGLE-STEP BONDING SYSTEM ON DENTIN BOND STRENGTHS

NIKAIDO T, NAKAOKI Y, OGATA M, Foxtond R, TAGAMI J
The Journal of Adhesive Dentistry Vol. 5(4): 293-300

The purpose of this study was to compare the dentin micro-tensile bond strengths (MTBSs) of an experimental bonding system, RZ-II, in direct and indirect use.

Methods:
Human molar dentin was used. The specimens (n=20) were divided into three groups:
Group 1:
RZ-II was applied to the dentin surface once or twice, and built up with a direct composite.
Group 2:
The dentin surface was temporized and stored in water for 1 day. An indirect composite was then bonded to the dentin surface.
Group 3:
RZ-II was applied to the dentin surface once or twice for "resin coating" before temporization. An indirect composite was then bonded to the coated dentin.

After 1 day, MTBSs were measured at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The interface between the indirect composite and resin-coated dentin was also observed using a SEM.

Results:

  # of coating MTBS(MPa) Fracture mode
Direct Single 24.4±8.7a A(10%), B(90%)
Double 31.3±7.4a B(70%), C(30%)
Indirect No(control) 8.6±3.3 D(70%), E(30%)
Single 26.1±6.4a E(20%), F(10%), G(70%)
Double 24.4±9.3a F(30%), G(70%)

The superscript letter indicates no significant differences (p>0.05).

A:
partial adhesive failure at the bonding resin/dentin interface including cohesive failure within bonding resin.
B:
partial adhesive failure at the bonding resin/dentin interface including cohesive failure within hybrid layer, bonding resin and composite.
C:
cohesive failure within bonding resin and composite.
D:
partial adhesive failure where remnants of resin cement remained on the dentin surface.
E:
cohesive failure within resin cement.
F:
complete adhesive failure at RZII/resin cement interface.
G:
partial adhesive failure at RZII/resin cement interface where remnants of resin cement remained on the RZII surface.

The MTBSs of RZ-II in Groups 1 and 3 were significantly higher than those of Group 2 (p < 0.05). The thickness of the resin-coating layer and the hybrid layer were 5 to 6 μm and less than 1 μm, respectively.

Conclusion:
The single-step bonding system, RZ-II, could be useful as a resin coating material for crown preparation.

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The following is the summary of the report presented at the 82nd General Session of the IADR in Honolulu in March 2004.

EVALUATION OF SEALING ABILITY OF SELF-ETCHING BONDING SYSTEMS

T. YAMAMOTO1, M. ARATA2, T. ORI1, H. TANAKA1, H. NISHITANI1, S. SUZUKI2

1Sun Medical Co., Ltd., Japan
2University of Alabama, USA

Evaluation of Sealing Ability of Self-etching Bonding Systems【PDF:393KB】pdf

This study evaluated the sealing ability of self-etching bonding systems used for bonding, desensitizing, and dentin coating.

Materials used:
・Touch&Bond (Parkell) =AQ Bond
・AQ Bond Plus (Sun Medical)
・Brush&Bond (Parkell)=Hybrid Bond

Methods: Extracted human molars were ground flat to dentin with #600 SiC paper under water irrigation. Smear layer on the ground surface was mechanically removed with hydroxyapatite paste. Each bonding system was applied to the surface and photo polymerized for 10 seconds. The occlusion rate was measured by SEM. TBS was measured by adding a composite (Epic-TMPT, Parkell) onto the bonded surfaces. Cavo-surfaces of cylindrical cavities prepared on the dentin specimens were sealed with the bonding systems. They were immersed in 5% methylene-blue solution for 2hs, and dye penetration was evaluated by an optical microscope. The data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Fisher's test (p<0.05, n=7).

Results:
Sealing ability and TBS of self-etching bonding systems

Evaluated Item / Materials Touch&Bond AQ Bond Plus Brush&Bond
Occlusion rate (%) 85.1±9.6* 95.4±4.1 98.2±2.1
Dye penetration (%) 37.6±17.4* 7.7±7.1 3.0±3.1
Tensile bond strength (MPa) 12.3±2.7 13.4±3.3 13.2±2.1
*
Significantly different from other systems within the same item evaluated (p<0.05)

Conclusions:
All bonding systems tested exhibited more than 75% of occlusion rate and over 10MPa of TBS. Both AQ Bond Plus and Brush&Bond demonstrated significantly less dye penetration compared to that of Touch&Bond (p<0.05).

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The following is the summary of the report presented at the 82nd General Session of the IADR in Honolulu in March 2004.

BOND STRENGTH OF CARIES-AFFECTED DENTIN USING THIN-FILM BONDING AGENT

T. ORI1, H. NISHITANI1, T. YAMAMOTO1, Y. NISHITANI2, T. YAMADA2, M. YOSHIYAMA2

1Sun Medical Co., Ltd., Japan
2Okayama University, Japan

Bond Strength of Caries-affected Dentin Using Thin-film Bonding Agent【PDF:345KB】pdf

This study evaluated the characteristics of the thin-film bonding agents by measuring the microtensile bond strengths (μTBS) to "Sound" and "Caries-affected" dentin.

Materials used:
・Touch&Bond (Parkell) =AQ Bond
・AQ Bond Plus (Sun Medical)
・Brush&Bond (Parkell)=Hybrid Bond

Methods:
Twelve extracted human molars with coronal carious lesions were used. The flat dentin surface was polished with silicon carbide paper (#600) and stained using caries detector solution. One of the three self-etching bonding agents is applied to each tooth for 20 sec. After the adhesive on all specimens was photo-cured, EPIC-TMPT (Parkell) was built up 5 mm and then photo-polymerized. These specimens were then stored in 37°C water for 24 h. In the μTBS tests, the resin-bonded teeth were sliced into 0.8 mm thick, and bonded surfaces were trimmed to obtain a bonded area of
1mm2. After those tests, specimens were observed with SEM for evaluation of the interface between the bonded resins and the sound or caries-affected dentin.

Results:
μTBS to sound or caries-affected dentin (n = 10).

Dentin Substrate μTBS (MPa)
Touch&Bond AQ Bond Plus Brush&Bond
Sound dentin 26.4 ± 8.9 a 33.6 ± 7.3 b 30.0 ± 9.5 c
Caries-affected dentin 28.9 ± 4.3 a 30.8 ± 4.7 b 29.9 ± 5.7 c

Values with same letters are not significantly different (p = 0.05).

Conclusions:
Touch&Bond, AQ Bond Plus and Brush&Bond showed the excellent bond strength to caries-affected dentin.

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The following is the summary of the report presented at the 82nd General Session of the IADR in Honolulu in March 2004.

Influence of Dental Curing Lights on Tensile Bond Strength

M. ARATA1, T. ORI1, K. TASHIRO1, H. NISHITANI1, T. YAMAMOTO1, A. SENDA2, J. TAGAMI3, N. MATSUZAWA4, and Y. MOMOI4

1Sun Medical Co. Ltd.
2Aichi-Gakuin University
3Tokyo Medical & Dental University
4Tsurumi University

Influence of Dental Curing Lights on Tensile Bond Strength【PDF:289KB】pdf

This study evaluated the influence of dental curing lights on the tensile bond strength (TBS) of thin film bonding systems to dentin.

Materials used:
Bonding Systems:
・Touch&Bond (Parkell) =AQ Bond
・AQ Bond Plus(Sun Medical)
・Brush&Bond (Parkell)=Hybrid Bond
・Curing light types:
・Halogen, Xenon, LED

Methods:
Flat dentin surfaces of extracted human molars were prepared by grinding with SiC paper (#180) under running water. Each bonding system was applied to the dentin followed by a build up of Epic-TMPT (Parkell) composite. After a 24h immersion in 37°C water, the specimens were stressed to failure in tension. The data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Fisher's test (p<0.05, n=7).

Results:
TBS and wavelengths of curing lights (Unit: MPa)

Curing light Touch&Bond AQ Bond Plus Brush&Bond
Name Type Wavelength (nm)
Candelus Halogen 380-510 12.0±3.1 13.4±2.9 13.5±1.9
Apollo95E Xenon-A 440-500 6.1±2.2* 13.3±3.5 13.2±2.0
Apollo Elite430tip Xenon-B 400-500 11.4±2.9 13.9±3.6 14.0±2.6
LED Demetron1 LED 450-470 5.8±2.7* 11.3±2.5 12.1±3.1
*
Significantly different from other systems within the same light (p<0.05).

Conclusions:
The curing light with their wavelength spectra between 400nm and 420nm should be used for Touch&Bond although AQ Bond Plus and Brush&Bond did not have restriction in the curing lights.

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